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Sage

Botanical Name
Salvia officinalis
Salvia apia
na (White Sage)
Salviae folium

Other Names
Garden Sage, Red Sage, Shu-wei-tsao (Chinese), Dalmation Sage

Click on thumbnail to see pictures for identification.

Name
Sage

Botanical Name
Salvia officinalis
Salvia apiana (White Sage)
Salviae folium

Other Names
Garden Sage, Red Sage, Shu-wei-tsao (Chinese), Dalmation Sage

Family
Sage is from the Mint (Labiatae) family.

Parts Used 
Leaves and flowering tips.

Description
Sage is a perennial shrub often used for culinary purposes.

Overview
  and Mythology.
It was introduced to North America during the seventeenth century. The genus name Salvia is derived from the Latin salvere (to be saved or'to be in good health'), in reference to its curative properties. is 'Cur moriatur homo cui Salvia cresit in horto?' translated as 'Why should a man die who has Sage in his garden?'  Growing Sage in the Medieval garden was a sign of prosperity.  It was also a sign that if the plant flourished, the woman ruled the house. 

This species was used in ancient Egyptian, Greek, and Roman medicines. Ancient Egyptians used it as a fertility drug. Pliny the Elder (ca. 23–79 C.E.) reported that sage enhanced memory functions.

 In the first century C.E. Greek physician Dioscorides reported that the aqueous decoction of sage stopped bleeding of wounds and cleaned ulcers and sores. He also recommended sage juice in warm water for hoarseness and cough. Its uses in traditional Greek medicine spread to India, where the dried and fluid extract are used in traditional Indian Ayurvedic medicine,

Distribution
Native to the Mediterranean rim. Cultivated in Albania, Turkey, Greece, Italy, France, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

Energetics.
Bitter, Cool, Drying, Pungent

Constituents:
Organic Acids:(Phenolic acid)
Caffeic acid, Carnosic acid, Chlorogenic acid, Ferulic acid, Gallic acid, Labiatic Acid, Rosmarinic acid.   

Polyphenols:  
Salvin                         

Terpenes:       
Triterpene Saponins
Oleanolic acid inhibits the ability of Paracetamol to damage the Liver.

Ursolic Acid Strengthens the Capillaries. Alleviates Edema
Inhibits HIV Protease (an enzyme involved in the replication of the HIV virus that causes Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)).
Alleviates Allergies (it inhibits Mast Cell degranulation and Histamine release from Mast Cells in the presence of Antigens).
Possesses Antioxidant properties.

Ursolic Acid helps to alleviate Enlarged Prostate.

Volatile Oils:(1.5–2.8%  monoterpenoids)
Borneol, Bornyl Acetate, Camphor[4.5–24.5%],Cineole,Humulene, Limonene, Linalool, Pinene, Salvene,Thujone (18–60%---Antimicrobial activity attributed to its thujone content), Thymol.                      

Bitter principle :
(Picrosalvine),Diterpenoid bitter principles Carnosol, Carnosic acid, and Rosmanol.

Bioflavonoids[flavones]
 1–3%
 Apigenin and Luteolin derivatives
 reduces the body’s endogenous production of Uric Acid (by inhibiting the Xanthine Oxidase enzyme):-It is noteworthy that Uric Acid also has various therapeutic benefits and is primarily toxic only when produced in excess, in which case it can be a cause of Gout.

Tannin
Catechin-type tannins (salviatannin)

Phytoestrogens
Resin.
Steroids
                     

Dosage Recommendations
Infusion: 1–3 g in 150 ml water, three times daily

Internal Applications.
Tea, Tincture,Capsules.

Medicinal Actions
Anaphrodisiac, Antifungal, Antigalactagogue, Anti-inflammatory, Antioxidant, Antiseptic, Antispasmodic, Antisudorific, Aromatic, Astringent, Cerebral Tonic, Carminative, Choleretic, Emmenagogue, Expectorant, Diaphoretic, Hypoglycemic, Nervine, Phytoestrogenic, Rejuvenative, Tonic, Vermifuge.

Used in the following internal illnesses
Anxiety, Blood Clots, Candida, Colds, Congestion, Cystitis, Depression, Diabetes, Diarrhea, Dysmenorrhea, Dyspepsia, Fever, Flatulence, Flu, Hot Flashes, Indigestion, Insomnia, Laryngitis, Lymphatic Congestion, Memory Loss, Menopause, Migraine, Night Sweats, Profuse Perspiration, Rheumatism, Spermatorrhea, Staphylococcus, Worms

Sage tends to have a drying effect and has even been used for excessive saliva production in those with Parkinson's Disease. 
It also helps women who have excessive menses.


Health Benefits of Sage
Adrenal System
Sage contains precursors for the production of Adrenal Hormones.
Cardiovascular System
Sage helps to prevent abnormal Blood Clotting.
Sage prevents and treats Heart Attacks.
Digestive System
Sage (tea used as a gargle) alleviates Halitosis.
Excretory System
Sage reduces Perspiration.
Immune System
Sage reduces Fevers.
Metabolism
Sage alleviates Fatigue.
Sage stimulates the regrowth of (regenerates) Liver tissue.
Musculoskeletal System
Sage reduces excessive Mucous discharges.
Nervous System
Sage inhibits the production of Acetylcholinesterase (the enzyme that accelerates the destruction of Acetylcholine) thus increases Concentration ability, improves memory and increases alertness.
Sage (vapors from oil inhaled) may help to inhibit the further progression of Alzheimer’s Disease (by inhibiting the Acetylcholinesterase enzyme)
Respiratory System
Sage (tea) alleviates Laryngitis. 
Sage (tea) alleviates Tonsillitis. 
Sage (tea) alleviates Pharyngitis (sore throat).  

External Applications.
Poultice of fresh leaves for insect bites and wounds. Gargle for mouth sores, laryngitis, sore throat, sore gums and tonsillitis. 
Wash for eczema, poison ivy or oak and psoriasis.  Douche for leukorrhea.  
Facial steam, breath freshening toothpaste ingredient.  Fresh leaves are rubbed on teeth as a whitening agent. Used in deodorants as an antiperspirant.  
Dried herb is burned for purification of negative energy.  Leaves have traditionally been smoked to relieve asthma.  
It helps promote mental alertness just by smelling the leaves and has long been used by students cramming for tests.

External Medicinal Use
Asthma, Dandruff, Eczema, Gingivitis, Gray Hair, Insect Bites, Laryngitis, Leukorrhea, Mouth Sores, Oily Scalp, Poison Ivy, Poison Oak, Psoriasis, Sore Throat, Tonsillitis, Wounds
Hair
Sage (strong infusion applied topically to the hair) disguises Gray Hair.
Sage (infusion applied topically to the scalp) sometimes stimulates Hair growth.
Oral Health
Sage alleviates ailments of the Gums.
Skin
Sage alleviates the Itching associated with Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 lesions.
Sage (crushed leaves applied topically as a poultice) alleviates the Itching and Inflammation of Insect Bites.
Sage (tea applied topically) temporarily alleviates Itching.
Sage (tea applied topically) alleviates the Itching associated with Shingles and Psoriasis.

Contra indications and side effect
Epileptics may be adversely affected by the thujone content and should avoid large doses of Sage.

Use During Pregnancy And Lactation.
Not recommended during pregnancy.
May cause milk to dry up during lactation.


Interactions with Other Drugs.
None known.

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